Historical Culture

Published: 2015-06-24  |  source:  |  Views:

  ·[ Historical Culture ] The system establishment, evolution as well as the course of economic and social development of Zunyi can be roughly divided into the following phases:  

  ·(1) Ancient Period: Paleolithic period and Neolithic period. The already discovered historical sites of Zunyi ancients mainly include the Yanhui Cave in Jiuba, Tongzi, Maanshan North Cave and South Cave in Tongzi, Donggongsi Fengmao Mountain in Huichuan District, Shuanglongdayou Cave in Xishui County, Longshan Mountain in Zunyi County and Xintian Village, Fengle Town of Wuchuan Autonomous County. Tooth fossils of the ancients discovered in Yanhui Cave of Tongzi were verified to belonging to the middle paleolithic homo erectus 206,000~240,000 years ago, which are named “Tongzi men” in the academic circle. Lots of stone tools and bone tools as well as evidence of fire have been discovered among various paleoanthropological sites and several other places. Archaeological discoveries have demonstrated that area around Zunyi is the cradle for the primitive forefathers to live, reproduce and inhabit. 

  ·(2) Tribal PeriodThe Spring and Autumn Period between the 8th and 5th century BC. Territories of the present Zunyi City were successively or respectively under the jurisdiction of State of Zangke, Ba, Shu, Bie and Xi. In the period of Warring States between the 5th and 2nd century BC, it was subordinate to the State of Yelang. According to the historical records, at that time, “there were villages there, and people were busy plowing their fields”, “Pu people tributed cinnabar”. Present Wuchuan autonomous county is the place with the most production of cinnabar among the Pu tribe. 

  ·(3) Commandery-County Period: The 26th year of the reign of Emperor Qin Shihuang to the 6th year of Dali period of Tang dynasty (221BC--771AD). After Qin Shihuang unified China, he promoted the Commandery-County System nationwide. The areas of present Zunyi City were respectively under the jurisdiction of the southwestern Ba Commandey and southeastern Shu Commadery. In the 5th year of the Yuanguang reign of West Han Dynasty (130 BC), Qianwei Commadery was established, with its county town as Bie, the central urban area of present Zunyi city. In the 6th year of the Yuanding Period (111 BC), Zangke Commadery was set up in Yelang, and the State of Yelang, which had been existing for over 250 years, had disappeared since then. Thereafter, names as “Yelang Commandery”, “Yelang County” under the administrative system of Commandery-County occurred frequently. Yelang County established in the 16th year of Zhenguan reign of Tang Dynasty (642 AD), the seat of Zhenzhou, is located in the present Tongzi County. In the first year of Tianbao era of Tang Dynasty (742 AD), Zhenzhou was changed into Yelang Commandery, whose seat was exactly in the Yelang County. In the 2nd year of Zhide Era (757 AD), poet Li Bai was exiled to “Yelang”, that is Yelang Dam in present Tongzi County, Zunyi. During Five Dynasties period, Yelang County was abolished, and it was reestablished in Northern Song Dynasty. In the 2nd year of Xuanhe Era (1120), Yelang County was abolished again. Totally, its reserve and abolishment have gone through 480 years. From then on, the commandery or county name of “Yelang” has never appeared in Chinese history. 

  ·The state and commandery names of the second-level administrative region in present Zunyi city have changed frequently through dynasties. In the 13th year of Zhenguan Era in Tang Dynasty (639), Langzhou of Sui Dynasty was renamed Bozhou, governing large areas of the present Northern Guizhou Province. Bozhou has existed for 962 years from Five Dynasties, Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty to the late Ming Dynasty. Therefore, people generally call the ancient Zunyi city “Bozhou”. In addition, partial territories of the present Northern Guizhou Province were subordinates to Qianzhou, Feizhou, Yizhou, Qinzhou, Nanzhou, Zangzhou, etc. 

  ·In the 16th year of Zhenguan Era in Tang Dynasty (642), Luomeng County under the leadership of Bozhou was renamed Zunyi County, which is the initial occurrence of the name "Zunyi". Until today, the name "Zunyi" has been used for 1371 years. 

     During this historical period, close cultural connection between the present Zunyi region and Central China brought forth cultural pioneers of Guizhou Province as “Three Wise Men of Han Dynasty”--- She Ren, Sheng Lan and Yin Zhen. Buddhism began to be introduced into this area. The leader for the construction of the

  ·Leshan Giant Buddha in Sichuan Province named Haitong is also from Bozhou. According to historical materials, Bozhou did pay tribute to the court at that time due to the continuous economic development. 

  ·(4) Tuguan period: From the 6th year of Dali Era in Tang Dynasty to the 28th year of Wanli Era in Ming Dynasty (771 AD-1600 AD). In the 6th year of Dali Era in Tang, Luo Rong led the army to suppress rebellion in Bozhou, thus got the free hold estate lasting for 5 generations, but then driven out of the land by Nanzhao. In the 3rd year of Qianfu (876), Yang Duan retook Bozhou to be the hereditary ruler of Bozhou and kept expanding the geographic reach. Bozhou in Tang and Song Dynasty, called Jimi Zhou, was beyond direct rule of the court. Later Yang Duan became the chieftain in Ming and Qing Danasty. Bozhou tea storehouse was set up in early Ming dynasty with the development of tea-horse economy. Hereditary rule of Bozhou by the Yangs has passed through 29 generations, totally 725 years, ended in the battle of the Pacification of Bozhou in the 28th year of Wanli Era in Ming Dynasty. Meanwhile, Tuguan of all dynasties mostly paid close attention to culture and education, economic development, obedience of centralization and safeguarding national unity. Yang Bo’s 12th generation, Yang Zhen, moved the administrative seat to Mujiachuan, marking the beginning of present Zunyi as the political, economic, and cultural center of Northern Guizhou Province. While his 13th generation Yang Can was in power, the heyday of Bozhou emerged. The Eight Scholars sprung up in South Song dynasty were also from Bozhou. The 15th generation Yang Wen built the military castle Hailongtun. Brother Ran Jin and Ran Pu from Bozhou established the Fishing City in Hezhou (present day Hechuan, Chongqing) to resist the Mongol army. And Yang Hanying (early Yuan Dynasty), the 17th Chieftain of the Yangs has written over ten books as Taoxi Poems and Mingzhe Highlights. 

  ·(5) Zunyi Fu Peroid: From the 29th year of Wanli Era (Ming) to the 3rd year of Xuantong Reign in Qing Dynasty (1601-1911). After the battle of the Pacification of Bozhou in the 28th year of Wanli Era in Ming, bureaucratization of native officers were implemented, supplanting the previous Chieftain System. The following year Bozhou was divided into two “Junmin Fu”---Zunyi and Pingyue, respectively under the jurisdiction of Sichuan and Guizhou. Until the Kangxi Era in Qing Dynasty, “Junmin” was abolished. Most territories of the present Zunyi City belonged to the Zunyi Fu, while partial regions pertaining to Pingyue, Shiqian and Sinan. Zunyi Fu was put under administration of Guizhou in the 5th year of Yongzhen Era in Qing Dynasty (1722). The appellation “Zunyi Fu” has existed for 310 years until “Fu” being abolished after the Revolution of 1911. 

  ·In late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, enormous outpost officers, adherents of Ming, eminent monks and immigrants with relative productive skills entered the present Northern Guizhou. Middle and late periods of Qing Dynasty have witnessed large numbers of talented people coming out in succession and the rapid economic and social development in Zunyi. The introduction of tussah from Shandong, silkworm from Zhejiang, phyllostachys pubescens from Fujian; the renovation of the Chishui River channel, the salt transportation; the initiation of workshop industry represented by Yuan Jindao, the achievements of brewing techniques represented by Maotai were all highlights for Zunyi being the best city of Guizhou. During the two centuries of Qianlong’s reign in Qing Dynasty, the Beach Culture prevailed, with the Three Sages of Qing---Zhengzhen, Mo Youzhi, Li Shuchang---as the representatives. Besides, with the emergence of multitudinous cultural families, brilliant talents and increasing number of famous writings as well as focus on education and culture, Zunyi became the nationwide well-known cultural region in the mid and late Qing Dynasty. 

  ·During this period, Catholicism was introduced into Northern Guizhou. Hundreds years later, three Zunyi Religious Events shocking the nation happened. Uprising led by Yang Longxi (Tongzi) and the surging revolt of white, yellow and blue number armed forces shaked the feudal dynasty, causing decades of social turbulence and dire poverty of people in Zunyi area. In the 21st year of reign of Emperor Guangxu (1895), Kang Youwei allied himself with the provincial graduates in Beijing to join in the Gongche Shangshu Movement to struggle for reform and national rejuvenation, among which 13 signers are from Zunyi. 

  ·(6) The Republica China Period: The first year of Republic China period to the 38th year (1912---1949). The Revolution of 1911 overthrew the feudal monarchy. On the 4th of November, 1911, Guizhou declared its independence. On the 9th of November, Zunyi established Great Han military-political branch government of Guizhou and dedicated to the Republic. Counties responded in succession to end the rule of feudal monarchy in Northern Guizhou. In the 2nd year of republic, the administrative unit Fu was repealed, substituted by the system of province governing counties. In 1935, the 24th year of the Republica China Era, Guizhou set up 11 administrative supervision districts. Over 10 counties in Northern Guizhou constituting the NO.5 Administrative Supervision District, while the subordinating counties varied from time to time. Zunyi region at the Republic China Era was firstly governed by local warlords before 1935. It’s worth mentioning that the Tongzi Junta has ruled Guizhou for a decade. Since 1935, the Kuomingtang has become the party in power. 

  ·The May 4th Movement in 1919 was taken up by the whole Zunyi. Powerful and dynamic dissemination of the new ideas as Science, Democracy and Marxism was like a blockbuster. In 1928, the first CPC local organization in Guizhou---Chihetezhi--- was established. From January to March in 1935, the Chinese Red Army led by the CPC arrived in the northern Guizhou through the Long March, received warm welcome and support from Northern Guizhou people. Meanwhile, the enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of CPC(Zunyi Conference) held from the 15th to the 17th in January was a great turning point of the revolution. The Red Army launched various activities in the Red Region, established county and township Soviet Regime, revolutionary armed forces and different mass organizations and spread the seeds of revolutionary fire. Until late 1949, more than 80 CPC branch organizations have been set up one after another in Zunyi. These CPC organizations became the dominant force in the Anti-Japanese National Salvation Movement and the democratic movement in the course of the Anti-Japanese War and the Liberation War among the region. 150,000 young and passionate Zunyi people rushed to the frontline and battlefield behind enemy lines, making a great sacrifice in the Anti-Japanese War. The rear-area work of supporting the front from Zunyi people of all walks of life also made great contributions. Having accepted hundreds of migrating institutions as Zhejiang University, Daxia University, Lujun University, Navy Academy and 41 Arsenal as well as thousands of compatriots in exile, Zunyi became an important city in the rear to fight against Japanese. During the 7-year operating in Northern Guizhou, Zhejiang University has achieved fruitful teaching and scientific research results. “Unequivocally speaking, this is exactly the Oriental Cambridge.” Said the famous English scientist Joseph Lee. 

  ·During the Literature Revolution Movement in 1930s, Northern Guizhou writers participated in the China League of Left-Wing Writers included Duan Xuesheng, Chen Yi, Qin Chuan, Xiao Zhiliang, Zhan Jianlun, etc. On the Path of Guizhou by Jian Xianai, Black Dominator by Shou Sheng and The Resistance by female writer Lu Baohua were all rated as the Best Literature Works of Guizhou in the 20th Century, three of the four during the Republic China Era. 

  ·Student movement, labor movement, peasant movement and armed struggles have raged in the Zunyi region during the Liberation War period, mainly struggling against civil war, hunger, persecution, grain levy, and compulsory conscription and taxpaying on the strength of the masses. In the late 1949, the CPC underground organizations and its external organizations extensively carried out the united-front work, effectively organized the protection of cities, roads, factories and warehouses, and successfully prepared for the liberation. 

  ·(7) Republican Period: On the 21st, November, 1949, the China People’s Liberation Army entered into Zunyi City, and counties in the northern Guizhou were liberated one after another. Since then, the Kuomingtang regime collapsed, and people’s regime led by the CPC established, history turning over a new page. The NO.5 Administrative Supervision District was changed into Zunyi Prefecture, later renamed Zunyi District, being agency of the provincial government. Construction of a new Zunyi city based on the previous urban areas of Zunyi County. Counties under the jurisdiction of Zunyi District have experienced a little changes in a decade thereafter. In June, 1997, under the authorization of State Council, Zunyi District was converted into Zunyi City(prefecture-level city, unveiling in November, 1997), the previous Zunyi City was converted into Honghuagang District, and the original counties, autonomous counties subordinated to Zunyi District were under the jurisdiction of the newly-built Zunyi City. Chishui City and Renhuai City were provincial cities hosted by Zunyi City (Since the first of June, 2013, Renhuai City has been back to the provincial control). In 2004, authorized by the State Council, Huichuan District was established by laying off partial areas of Honghuagang District and northern Zunyi County based on the original economic and technological development zone. In 2009, on the foundation of Xinpu Town and Xinzhou Town, a Xinpu New District Management Committee was set up. Until then, the whole Zunyi City has jurisdiction over two districts, eight counties, two minority autonomous counties, two provincial cities and the Xinpu New District.